DSS colitis - Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for colitis)
DSS Colitis, Photo - distal colon H&E staining when given mice 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days
The DSS is supplied as the sodium salt and is stabilised by a small addition of phosphate salts. DSS is stable indefinitely when stored in well sealed containers at room temperature. A certificate of analysis is supplied with each batch. The molecular weight range, sulfur content, moisture etc are carefully controlled.
Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) with a mol. wt. of approx. 40000 when administered orally in the drinking water has been found to induce colitis in experimental animals. Concentrations from 2 to 5% have been used and symptoms develop within one week. The recommended concentrations of DSS for mice are 2.5-3.5% and this will depend, eg. on the strain, age and sex of the animals. For rats somewhat higher concentrations may be required 3.5-5%. It will also depend on whether your study requires a milder onset of colitis or a more aggresive response.
Reference: A-C. Bylund-Fellenius, E.Landström, L-G.Axelsson and T.Midtvedt,Microb.Ecol.,1994:7;207.
Read our brief advice on using DSS for Colitis
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137. Bootz, F., Schmid, A. S. & Neri, D. Alternatively Spliced EDA Domain of Fibronectin Is a Target for Pharmacodelivery Applications in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 21, 1908–1917 (2015).
138. Te Velde, A. A. et al. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis. Nutrients 7, 8518–8531 (2015).
139. Zhdanov, A. V., Okkelman, I. A., Collins, F. W. J., Melgar, S. & Papkovsky, D. B. A novel effect of DMOG on cell metabolism: direct inhibition of mitochondrial function precedes HIF target gene expression. Biochim. Biophys. Acta BBA - Bioenerg. 1847, 1254–1266 (2015).
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SELECTED OLDER PUBLICATIONS
143. Sommer, F. et al. Altered Mucus Glycosylation in Core 1 O-Glycan-Deficient Mice Affects Microbiota Composition and Intestinal Architecture. PLOS ONE 9, e85254 (2014).
144. Wagner, A. E. et al. DSS-induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice is mitigated by sulforaphane pre-treatment. J. Nutr. Biochem. 24, 2085–2091 (2013).
145. Beloqui, A. et al. Budesonide-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers reduce inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis. Int. J. Pharm. 454, 775–783 (2013).
146. Thaker, A. I., Shaker, A., Rao, M. S. & Ciorba, M. A. Modeling Colitis-Associated Cancer with Azoxymethane (AOM) and Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS). JoVE J. Vis. Exp. e4100 (2012). doi:10.3791/410
147. Van Crombruggen, K. et al. Influence of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibition on inflammation and motility disturbances in DSS-induced colitis. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 579, 337–349 (2008).
148. Ten Hove, T., Drillenburg, P., Wijnholds, J., te Velde, A. A. & van Deventer, S. J. H. Differential Susceptibility of Multidrug Resistance Protein-1 Deficient Mice to DSS and TNBS-Induced Colitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2056–2063 (2002).
149. Dieleman et al. Chronic experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) is characterized by Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 114, 385–391 (1998).